1960s – Decade in context

A Short Aboriginal History Aboriginal History starts with the arrival of the Aborigine to Australia when Indonesia and Papua were joined by a land bridge during the last ice age and that they either walked across the land bridge or came in small boats. As the Ice age ended the seas rose and Australia became isolated. In Aboriginal History settlement mainly occurred in the south around the rivers and more fertile areas. There were no domesticated animals or crop cultivations as they were hunter gatherers. The population was more stable in the areas with more food, more nomadic in areas like the desert where food and water were hard to find and in short supply. There was no concept of owning land as you were tied to the land by your spiritual links and what the land could provide for you. In isolation they lived in this way for thousands of years. The historical evidence of Aboriginal people shows that they are one of the oldest continual civilizations in the world.

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Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas and Columbian Exchange Cultural areas of North America at time of European contact The European colonization of the Americas fundamentally changed the lives and cultures of the native peoples of the continents. The majority of these losses are attributed to the introduction of Afro-Eurasian diseases into the Americas. Epidemics ravaged the Americas with diseases such as smallpox , measles , and cholera , which the early explorers and African slaves brought from Europe.

The disease spread was slow initially, as Europeans were poor vectors for transferring the disease due to their natural exposure. This changed with the mass importation of Western and Central Africans slaves, who like the Native Americans lacked any resistances to the diseases of Europe and Northern Africa. These two groups were able to maintain a population large enough for diseases such as smallpox to spread rapidly amongst themselves.

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The lowest reaches of the pit are excavated. Finding artefacts at the site Vision courtesy: Play Press play then disable your screen reader. Use space bar to pause or play, and up and down arrows to control volume. Use left arrow to rewind and right arrow to fast forward. Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation ABC News After surveying the area with ground penetrating radar, the team dug 20 1-by metre pits down to a depth of more than 3 metres in previously unexcavated areas.

As they dug down they discovered more than 11, artefacts embedded in three dense bands of sediments of different ages. There were also lower numbers of artefacts in the layers between these dense bands. At the lowest level of the site they found: The world’s oldest-known ground-edge axe Australia’s oldest-known grinding stone Flakes and points, probably used as spear tips Ochre and the world’s oldest-known sheets of mica — a reflective mineral used to enhance paintings Evidence of a hearth Professor Roberts said it was unclear why the artefacts were distributed in this pattern.

He said the types of artefacts recovered from the three bands also differ in various ways. Excavation leader Chris Clarkson examines a stone tool.

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Settlements were subsequently established in Tasmania , Victoria , Queensland , the Northern Territory , Western Australia , and South Australia Australia was the exception to British imperial colonization practices, in that no treaty was drawn up setting out terms of agreement between the settlers and native proprietors, as was the case in North America, and New Zealand.

In the 19th century, smallpox was the principal cause of Aboriginal deaths, and vaccinations of the “native inhabitants” had begun in earnest by the s. The cause of the outbreak is disputed. Some scholars have attributed it to European settlers, [58] [59] but it is also argued that Macassan fishermen from South Sulawesi and nearby islands may have introduced smallpox to Australia before the arrival of Europeans.

The Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet is a website which makes published, unpublished and specially-developed material about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health freely accessible to people involved in the area of Indigenous health.

The death rate among the Indigenous population was more than twice the death rate for the total Australian population. The infant mortality rate for Indigenous Australians 11 deaths per 1, live births was twice the infant mortality rate for all Australians 5. Indigenous people were more than three times more likely to report some form of diabetes than non-Indigenous Australians. This rate has improved since when Indigenous unemployment was CDEP is not available to all Indigenous peoples. Indigenous unemployment rates rise significantly if participants in CDEP are counted as unemployed.

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These companies are Indigenous mining contractors and experiencing rising demand for their services. CDE Capital, though, has a history dating back to the s. Ngarda Civil and Mining started up in as a lawn mowing and gardening operation. It counts Leighton Contractors as a key shareholder.

Australian Aboriginal peoples: Survey of the history, society, and culture of the Australian Aboriginal peoples, who are one of the two distinct Indigenous cultural groups of Australia. It is generally held that they originally came from Asia via insular Southeast Asia and have been in Australia for at least 45,–50, years.

Expand Andrew Carswell and Robert Cockburn The Courier-Mail Edited February 05, Australia’s most distinguished astrophysicists are starting to believe that a discovery could turn history and cultural books upside. Dubbed Wurdi Youang, the strange stone arrangement was found on a property near Mt Rothwell, 80km west of Melbourne, its two points set in perfect alignment with the setting sun on a mid-summer’s day.

CSIRO professors believe the ancient Aboriginal sundial could be more than 10, years old, an estimate that would have it pre-date the famous neolithic Stonehenge and the only remaining ancient wonder of the world, the Egyptian Pyramids. Understandably, its exact location is a closely guarded secret. Expand CSIRO astrophysicist Professor Ray Norris said the precise alignment of the stones proved beyond a doubt it was constructed to map the movements of the sun, in order to track the seasons.

It required very careful measurements. So, that would indeed make them the world’s first astronomers. Stargazing in ancient Australia Stephanie Hegarty BBC World Service 6th October An egg-shaped ring of standing stones in Australia could prove to be older than Britain’s Stonehenge – and it may show that ancient Aboriginal cultures had a deep understanding of the movements of the stars. Fifty metres wide and containing more than basalt boulders, the site of Wurdi Youang in Victoria was noted by European settlers two centuries ago, and charted by archaeologists in , but only now is its purpose being rediscovered.

It is thought the site was built by the Wadda Wurrung people – the traditional inhabitants of the area. All understanding of the rocks’ significance was lost, however, when traditional language and practices were banned at the beginning of the 20th Century.

Kununurra, Western Australia

Indigenous Australian directors and actors are leading the charge when it comes to creating diverse entertainment, offering up some of the best films and TV shows the country has to offer. If you’ve been missing out, here is what you need to check out right now. Set in the sparse surrounds of northern New South Wales, it’s an honest reflection on what life can be like for young Indigenous Australian people in rural areas.

Sen makes you feel deep sympathy with protagonists Lena and Vaughan as they make the long trip to Sydney: The overwhelming sense of hopelessness, isolation, anger, desperation, and the constant watchful eye of the authorities. Beneath Clouds shines a light on a part of the country many Australians know little about.

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Jasper Hotel, Melbourne, 23 November It is a pleasure to be here this morning. I grew up in country Victoria, near Shepparton, on Yorta Yorta land. I see some familiar faces, so I pay my respects those the Yorta Yorta people present here this morning and I also acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land the Wurundjeri People and their neighbours the Boon Wurrung people of the Kulin Nation, and pay respect to their elders past and present.

Given that Sunday is the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women and there are a number of events planned in Melbourne later today, the timing of this conference is important. This morning I would like to reflect on two of our recent inquiries, both in relation to family violence. During this session I intend to: First family violence inquiry In March , the National Council to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children released Time for Action, a report on violence against women in the Australian community.

The report included a number of recommendations, including that the ALRC should undertake an inquiry into family violence laws in Australia. Specifically, we were asked to look at child support and family assistance law, immigration law, employment law, social security law and superannuation law and privacy provisions. We took safety to mean both safety from harm and also financial security and independence.

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This report attempts to identify a way forward on some of the challenging self-governance and service delivery issues facing governments and Aboriginal peoples, by identifying strategic opportunities for change and the development of more collaborative relationships. The issues here are of relevance to all stakeholders dealing with the related issues of governance and service delivery for remote Aboriginal communities across the Northern Territory.

Underlying the report is the basic premise that self-governance, local government and service delivery are inextricably intertwined both conceptually, and in practice. We commence by providing some background on Aboriginal affairs reform dating from the s and the granting of Northern Territory self-government in , and describe the emergence of some rather adversarial relationships in governance and service delivery for remote Northern Territory Aboriginal communities during the s and s.

These adversarial relationships between Commonwealth-sponsored and Northern Territory-sponsored organisations need to be overcome.

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Risk factors Examples Mental illness, substance abuses, sexual abuse trauma, loss of land and culture, trans-generational trauma, grief and loss, racism, social exclusion. Environment Removed from their biological parents, incarceration, acute poverty, denied rights, third-world conditions, missing access to the benefits of education and hard work. High levels of social disadvantage ranging from unemployment, to homelessness, incarceration and family problems. Historical experiences High influence, transgenerational trauma of massacres, war and genocide.

Rage is what overwhelms us in unbearable situations that we can neither fight nor flee. It is compounded if such situations repeat over a long period of time and the sufferer is powerless to avenge. All these factors are prevalent in Aboriginal communities.

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Play Video The findings, which are already causing intense interest in archaeological circles across the world, have been peer reviewed by internationally recognised scientists and are published this week in the world’s most prestigious science journal, Nature. Among the trove of discoveries are the world’s oldest stone axes with polished and sharpened edges, proving that the earliest Australians were among the most sophisticated tool-makers of their time: Advertisement The discovery of this axe sharpening stone inside the Kakadu National Park has rewritten the history of Australia.

Glenn Campbell “The axes were perfectly preserved, tucked up against the back wall of the shelter as we dug further and further,” Professor Clarkson told Fairfax Media.

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As many as indigenous people fought for Australia during World War. While there is not a single photo to prove it, some were part of the Gallipoli military legend. Now a curator at the Australian War Memorial, Mr Oakley is researching the involvement of Indigenous Australians in all major battles in which Australia has participated, from the Boer War to modern times.

However, at least 11 Aboriginal men were killed at Gallipoli and 21 survived the battle. Because they were not legally allowed to wear an Australian military uniform until , the year they officially became citizens, they tended to quietly return to their communities after serving their country. We probably never will know,” he said during a talk at the memorial. Mr Oakley believes the Australian Defence Force turned a “blind eye” when they signed up.

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The project will include the development of conservation and management plans. This project is Stage 2 of previous survey and will build on recommendations developed from Stage 1 to target locations more likely to contain sites. Gundungurra Aboriginal Heritage Association Inc. The signage will form part of a series of interpretive signs regarding sites that of Aboriginal cultural significance in Yass Valley. In addition senior women will also share stories and experiences related to five historical sites which have played an important role in the shaping of Warumungu and Warlmanpa culture today.

The recording and sharing of these stories will contribute to a wider understanding of heritage places and culture in this region and the production of subsequent resources relating to these stories will promote understanding and respect for the heritage of local Indigenous people and places.

s – Decade in context, Social and cultural features of the s, Australia’s social and cultural history in the post-war period, History, Year 9, NSW The s in context The s were a decade of political and social upheaval in Australia. Young people challenged the traditional values of their parent’s generation and actively opposed the decisions of the government.

Historical context the stolen generations Historical Context – The Stolen Generations This timeline details the history of forcible removal of Indigenous children from their families. It was compiled by the Australian Human Rights Commission. However, a wide range of other sources were also used. Clashes between Aboriginal people and the settlers are reported over the next 10 years in the Parramatta and Hawkesbury areas. Later, the community is moved to Cape Barren Island.

Flinders Council, Furneaux History British Select Committee examines the treatment of Indigenous people in all British colonies and recommends that ‘Protectors of Aborigines’ be appointed in Australia. The Governor can order the removal of any child from their family to a reformatory or industrial school. Until the Director of Native Welfare is the legal guardian of all ‘aboriginal’ children whether their parents are living or not. The Constitution states that Aboriginal People will not be counted in the census, and that the Commonwealth has the power to make laws relating to any race of people in Australia, with the exception of ‘Aborigines’.

The federated states therefore retain exclusive power over Aboriginal affairs until the Constitution is amended in

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Continue reading the main story Indigenous Australians also suffer disproportionate levels of poverty, addiction and unemployment in what they say is a racist society that dismisses them as second-class citizens. It was the topic of a closely watched conference of indigenous leaders last month, which also resulted in a proposed framework for granting First Australians a clearer role in government and greater control over their lives.

But the Australian government has yet to embrace these demands. Young indigenous Australians in particular, from various regions and backgrounds, described their country as a place where even when they have rights on paper, they do not always have them in practice. Having covered protests against the police in Ferguson, Mo. Here are three of their stories.

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And how we need to do that is to articulate what the problem is. Thistle agreed and, using his connections through the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness, built a national advisory committee of Indigenous scholars and service providers to help guide him. From January until August , Thistle consulted with these committees, whose participants also included Indigenous people with lived experience of homelessness and community representatives. The resulting definition, released at the Canadian Alliance to End Homelessness conference in Winnipeg last week, is as complex and comprehensive as the consultations themselves.

Unlike the conventional definition that references a lack of adequate, affordable shelter, Thistle found enough common ground among consultants to create a definition of Indigenous homelessness with 12 unique dimensions: Indigenous communities and nations made historically homeless after being displaced from pre-colonial Indigenous lands. Contemporary Geographic Separation Homelessness: Mental Disruption and Imbalance Homelessness: Cultural Disintegration and Loss Homelessness: The number of people per dwelling in urban and rural Indigenous households that exceeds the national Canadian household average, thus contributing to and creating unsafe, unhealthy and overcrowded living spaces, in turn causing homelessness.

Relocation and Mobility Homelessness:

Australia rediscovering Indigenous rock art


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