Over the subsequent decades the Normans expanded their territory in the region and secured their new acquisitions by constructing castles at key nodal points. Llansteffan Castle was one of these new outposts and was built circa to secure the mouth of the River Towy, a key artery for communication and movement in pre-industrial Wales. It occupied the eastern end of a steeply sided hillock which had previously been the site of a bivallate Iron Age promontory fort. The castle took the form of an earth and timber ringwork fortification and was constructed wholly within the earlier defences. Precisely who raised the first castle at Llansteffan is unknown but in the site was owned by the Camville family. The first surviving record mentioning the castle by name dates from when it was seized by Maredudd ap Gruffydd. An attempt to retake it the same year failed with a contemporary chronicler recording how the Welsh threw down ladders as the Normans attempted to scale the palisade. Nevertheless, Llansteffan was successfully retaken by the Normans in and returned to the Camvilles.
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The Gower Peninsula is the UK’s first Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and is 19 miles by 6 miles of award winning beaches, dramatic cliff-top walks, picturesque villages, rolling countryside, valleys, woodlands and breathtaking views. The area boasts many ancient sites including castles and a human burial chamber dating back to BC. Mumbles Mumbles is the gateway to the Gower.
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One good example is the rock shelter popularly known as Baiame’s Cave, at Milbrodale , with paintings depicting a large figure that may be Baiame, the Sky Father. Rock carvings, also known as petroglyphs or Rock Engravings, are of a style known as “simple figurative”, which conventional archaeological thinking dates to the last years. Other engravings show European sailing ships, and so cannot be more than about years old. Thus we are left with a date range of — years ago.
It is likely that some of the freshest engravings represent the later part of that time range, whilst the most worn represent the earliest part. However, the situation is complicated by the fact that we know the engravings were sometimes “re-grooved” during ceremonies. Carvings could be very large.
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Like the other two castles Skenfrith is remarkably well-preserved, standing mostly to wall walk height. The eastern wall and possibly north-eastern tower of the castle, built in a totally different style to the rest of the fortress, was constructed by Ralph. However this work proved abortive and Henry II cancelled the building work in as unnecessary. In , Sheriff William Braose pushed the unfinished castle into rapid service by placing a palisade around the other three sides of the ditch.
A prison was later built within the stockade.
Dating; Exchange and Mart; Newport 12°c. Ms James was speaking in response to South Wales West AM Dai Lloyd, who said “hopes are still alive in Swansea this project can get off the ground”.
Norman invasion of Wales and Wales in the Late Middle Ages The southern and eastern parts of Great Britain lost to English settlement became known in Welsh as Lloegyr Modern Welsh Lloegr , which may have referred to the kingdom of Mercia originally and which came to refer to England as a whole. His sons in turn would found three principal dynasties Aberffraw for Gwynedd, Dinefwr for Deheubarth and Mathrafal for Powys.
Rhodri’s grandson Hywel Dda r. Maredudd’s great-grandson through his daughter Princess Angharad Gruffydd ap Llywelyn r. Historian John Davies states that Gruffydd was “the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales Thus, from about until his death in , the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor.
With Llywelyn’s death and his brother prince Dafydd ‘s execution, the few remaining Welsh lords did homage for their lands to Edward I. Beaumaris , Caernarfon and Conwy. The apocryphal story that Edward tricked the Welsh by offering them a Welsh-born Prince who could speak no English was first recorded in But the rebellion failed, and Owain went into hiding in ; peace was essentially restored in Wales by Although the Statute of Rhuddlan in provided the constitutional basis for post-conquest government of the Principality of north Wales from until , there was no formal Union until Glamorgan and Lower Swansea valley Dowlais Ironworks by George Childs — Prior to the British Industrial Revolution , which saw a rapid economic expansion between and , there were signs of small-scale industries scattered throughout Wales.
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Stonehenge There is evidence from flint artefacts in a quarry at Westbury-sub-Mendip that an ancestor of modern man, possibly Homo heidelbergensis , was present in the future Somerset from around , years ago. The British mainland was connected to the continent during the ice age and humans may have repeatedly migrated into and out of the region as the climate fluctuated.
There is evidence of human habitation in the caves at Cheddar Gorge 11, —10, years BC, during a partial thaw in the ice age.
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Scone including Lake Glenbawn, Kars Springs, Bunnan, Parkville Attractive town in the heart of horse breeding country Scone which rhymes with ‘bone’ is a pleasant rural centre of wide, tree-lined streets situated within the Hunter Valley, km north of Sydney and 26 km north of Muswellbrook. It is metres above sea-level and has a population of about The commercial and administrative centre of a pastoral, agricultural and dairying shire Scone is an important stock-selling centre noted for its horse and cattle studs.
It is known as ‘The Horse Capital of Australia’ and claims to be the second-largest horse breeding area in the world, after Kentucky in the United States. The equine focus of the town is reflected in numerous ways: In pre-colonial days the Wanaruah people occupied the district. It is known that the Wanaruah had trade and ceremonial links with the Kamilaroi people who may also have occupied the area.
The Wanaruah favoured goannas as a food source, covering larger animals in hot ashes and stuffing them with grass. They also adopted burning off practices as the new shoots which emerged after fire attracted kangaroos which they surrounded and killed with clubs and spears du-rane barbed with sharp stones.
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See Article History Alternative Title: Cymru Wales, constituent unit of the United Kingdom that forms a westward extension of the island of Great Britain. The capital and main commercial and financial centre is Cardiff. Conwy Castle, along the River Conwy, Wales. Welsh engineers, linguists, musicians, writers, and soldiers went on to make significant contributions to the development of the larger British Empire even as many of their compatriots laboured at home to preserve cultural traditions and even the Welsh language itself, which enjoyed a revival in the late 20th century.
In the British government, with the support of the Welsh electorate, provided Wales with a measure of autonomy through the creation of the Welsh Assembly, which assumed decision-making authority for most local matters. Although Wales was shaken by the decline of its industrial mainstay, coal mining , by the end of the 20th century the country had developed a diversified economy, particularly in the cities of Cardiff and Swansea , while the countryside, once reliant on small farming, drew many retirees from England.
In the face of constant change, Wales continues to seek both greater independence and a distinct place in an integrated Europe. The varied coastline of Wales measures about miles km.
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Once a brutal convict colony, Norfolk Island is now a charming holiday resort with World Heritage-listed historic sites. Although the island is an external territory, it remains part of the Commonwealth of Australia and is home to the Pitcairn Island descendants of the Bounty mutineers. Today visitors can tour ruins of the old settlements and learn about the island’s Polynesian heritage and colonial past at its excellent museums. A third of this emerald island consists of national parks and reserves with scenic hiking and biking trails, excellent birding, and sweeping green landscapes dotted with native Norfolk Island pines.
Diving, swimming, and snorkeling are popular pastimes. Beach lovers will find a few secluded coves carved into the rugged and rocky coast. Coral reefs lie offshore, and the fishing is superb in these remote waters. Norfolk Island is about a 2. World Heritage-listed Lord Howe Island is a haven for serenity-seekers and nature lovers.